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在线翻译:
szdaily -> Speak Shenzhen
Mongolia: Go nomadic
    2017-September-11  08:53    Shenzhen Daily

James Baquet

Mongolia is a quiet nation sandwiched between two global giants: China to the south and Russia to the north. It is the world’s second-largest landlocked country (after Kazakhstan, though even that country borders on a “closed sea,” the Caspian). A very short trip along the China/Russia border from the western tip of Mongolia would bring one to the eastern tip of Kazakhstan — less than 37 kilometers.

The name “Mongolia” brings to mind sweeping grassy steppes with rugged horsemen sleeping in yurts. In fact, it truly is a land of “wide open spaces” — its population density is ranked No. 241 on a list of 246 — with the steppes still occupying most of the country. The northern and western parts of the country graduate into mountains, and the Gobi desert lies in the south. The capital, Ulaanbaatar, is by far the largest city, where about 40-45 percent of the country’s population lives.

Equestrian culture is still an integral part of the national culture. The country’s tourism slogan — “go nomadic” — reflects the phenomenon of nomadism, which has existed in the country from prehistoric times through the days of Genghis Khan until today. As of 2002, about 30 percent of all households were breeding livestock, most of them nomadic. To this day, the national cuisine includes few vegetables, and horse meat is a common dish. To eliminate illiteracy in the 1940s and 50s, boarding schools were set up to educate the children of nomadic families.

Since the 16th century, the people have increasingly practiced a form of Buddhism related to the one found in Tibet. This became even more pronounced with the onset of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). In the early 20th century, around the end of the Qing, nearly one-third of the men in Mongolia were Buddhist monks. Today, Buddhists are the largest group; the non-religious are next; and Muslims (mainly ethnic Kazakhs) are third.

Once known as “outer Mongolia” (to distinguish it from the Chinese region of Inner Mongolia), it is today a sovereign nation, though sometimes confused with its southern neighbor.

Vocabulary:

Which word above means:

1. Eurasian high-altitude grasslands

2. wide

3. horses, cows, etc.

4. essential part of the whole

5. places where children can sleep and learn

6. inability to read

7. style of cooking

8. the lifestyle of people moving from place to place, with no permanent home

9. squeezed between two things

10. round, portable tents

 

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