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在线翻译:
szdaily -> Speak Shenzhen
When are you smartest?
    2017-October-10  08:53    Shenzhen Daily

“At almost any given age, most of us are getting better at some things and worse at others,” Joshua Hartshorne, an MIT cognitive science researcher and the lead author of a study looking at how intelligence changes as we age, told Business Insider.

The team behind the study quizzed thousands of people aged 10-90 on their ability to do things like remember lists of words, recognize faces and learn names. Their results suggest that no matter your age, there’s almost always a new peak on the horizon.

Scientists use a test called Digit Symbol Substitution to assess everything from dementia to brain damage. It requires people to use a number of cognitive skills at once — including processing speed, sustained attention and visual skills. The tool, which typically involves pairing numbers with symbols, is also part of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, one of the most widely used measures of intelligence.

Hartshorne employed the test in his study of how intelligence changes over time and found that participants’ performance generally peaked in their late teens.

Most adults are bad at memorizing bits of information without context, a phenomenon that neuroscientists chock up to the Baker/baker paradox. A classic example of this idea is that you’ll have an easier time remembering a story about someone who bakes than a person with the last name Baker.

Young people don’t appear to be as saddled by this issue, though — a 2011 study found that humans are best at learning new names in our early 20s.

On average, we know that our ability to learn and remember new faces appears to peak shortly after our 30th birthday.

A 2015 study from researchers at Harvard University and the Boston Attention and Learning Laboratory suggests that our ability to sustain attention improves with age, reaching its peak around age 43.

Hartshorne’s study also involved showing thousands of people images of faces cropped tightly around the eye area. Participants were asked to describe the emotion the person in the photo was feeling. Performance peaked for people aged around 48.

Words to Learn 相关词汇

【痴呆症】chīdāizhèng dementia a usually progressive condition marked by the development of multiple cognitive deficits

【增加负担】zēngjiā fùdān saddle load or charge, as with a burden

乔舒亚•哈茨霍恩是麻省理工学院认知科学研究员,他主导了一项关于衰老与智力变化关系的研究。他告诉商业内幕网:“几乎在每个特定的年龄,大多数人会对某些事变得更擅长,而在某些事上开始走下坡路。”

这项研究的幕后团队对数千名年龄在10-90岁之间的人进行了单词记忆、人脸识别以及人名记忆等能力测试。结果表明,无论多大年纪,总会出现一个智力新高峰。

科学家们通过一种名为数字符号替换的测试来评估痴呆症、脑损伤等各种大脑情况,测试内容通常是将数字和符号配对。该测试要求人们同时使用多种认知能力,如信息处理速度、持久的专注力以及视觉能力等。数字符号替换测试也是韦氏成人智力量表的一种工具。韦氏成人智力量表是应用最广泛的智力测量标准之一。

哈茨霍恩应用这项测试,研究智力如何随着时间变化,并发现参与者最好的表现通常是在二十岁之前那几年。

在没有语境的情况下,大多数成年人不善于记忆琐碎信息,神经学家将这种现象称为“贝克悖论”。这一观点的典型例证是,相比于记住一个叫贝克的人,你更加容易记住一个烘焙师的故事。

然而,年轻人似乎没有这个困扰,2011年的一项研究发现,人类在20出头时最擅长记忆新名字。

一般来说,我们认为人类认识和记忆陌生面孔的能力似乎是在30岁出头达到顶峰。

哈佛大学和波士顿注意力与学习研究所2015年的一项研究表明,人类保持专注的能力随着年龄的增长而提高,在43岁左右到达顶峰。

哈茨霍恩的研究让参与者观看了数千张紧沿着眼睛区域剪裁出的人脸图像,要求他们描述出图片中人物的情绪。48岁左右的人表现最好。

(Chinadaily.com.cn)

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